Topic 80: अरे लड़के Hey Boy! (Vocative case)

Context: Jaspreet goes into the kitchen and gives instructions to the staff, Pappu, Munni and Sonu, then calls out to Baljit at the front counter.

Jaspreet in the kitchen

Notes: the vocative case

Sanskrit had eight cases, Hindi is left with only three, you have already learned two, this third one is really simple. Its basically just a way to attract people’s attention, like when you say Hey boy! or O lord!. With people you would address as तुम use अरे for ‘Hey!’ and with people you would address as आप use हे for ‘Oh!’.  For instance:

So it applies to people, and sometimes animals,

In poetry it is also used when you try to attract inanimate objects

Formation: It is just the oblique form of a noun without nasalisation. So:

The main spelling complication to note in the vocative is that in भाई and other nouns ending in -ई the -ई changes to -इ. For instance:


हे int. Oh! Hey! (often with people addressed as आप or तू)

अरे int. Hey! Oi! with people addressed as तुम (but traditionally not to women)

मालिक nm. boss, master, owner of a business/property

मालकिन nf. mistress (as in wife of मालिक)

पूरा adj. whole

पूरी तरह से adv. competely

होशियारी nf. intelligence

होशियारी से adv. intelligently

ज़रा adv. a little’, just, often used to soften requests

कुशल-मंगल adj. alright (literally, ‘skillful-fortunate’, as in a Banarasi greeting सब कुशल-मंगल है न? Everything's alright eh?

पगला nm. crazy/wild/silly man (can be used affectionately)

पगली nf. crazy/wild/silly woman (can be used affectionately)

बादल nm. cloud

मिष्टान nm. sweet dish (Formal way of saying मिठाई)

चुनाव nm. election

सज्जन nm. gentleman

महान adj. great (used in formal contexts only)

80 अभ्यास अस्सी – मालिक और नौकर Boss and servant

Context: The ‘boss’ is on the phone giving commands and the ‘servant’ acts them out and then the boss asks, ‘have you done the action’, and the servant says ‘I have done the action.’ Write, practice, and perform a script along these lines, but with your own additions! (Domestic servants are more common in India than Australia.)
नमूना   मालिक – अरे लड़के! कमरा साफ़ करो! [action] क्या, तुमने कमरा साफ़ किया?    
नौकर - जी हाँ, मैंने कमरा साफ़ किया। Your conversation should include:


साफ़ करना

clean dishes



wash clothes



buy vegetables



make food


तैयार करना

prepare tea

बाज़ार से सामान


get stuff from market

बिल्ली को

दूध देना

give cat milk



sweep up



send a letter



turn on the fan

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