Topic 28:ये प्याले हैं These are cups (singular and plural forms)
Context: Salim, Mark and Tara go back to the counter to get cutlery and change table.
बातचीत सलीम - तारा, वहाँ देखो, तीन कुरसियाँ हैं। वहाँ जाओ और बैठो । तारा - ठीक है और तुम जाओ, देखो क्या-क्या खाना है ? मार्क - सलीम, ये क्या हैं ? सलीम - ये कटोरे हैं । हमको कितने कटोरे चाहिए ? मार्क - हम लोग तीन हैं । हमको तीन कटोरे, और तीन थालियाँ चाहिए । सलीम - हमको तीन चम्मच भी चाहिए।
Salim - Tara, look there, there are three chairs. Go there and sit down.
Tara - Okay and you go, see what food is there ?
Mark - Salim, what are these?
Salim - These are bowls. How many bowls do we want?
Mark - We are three people. We want three bowls and three thalis.
Salim - We also want three spoons.
All nouns in Hindi have gender and are either masculine or feminine. The genders of living beings follow their gender but the genders of all other nouns need to be memorised as you cannot reliably tell their gender from the sound of a word. To work out how to form the plural of a noun you need to know its gender and work out which of these four patterns it follows.
You need to also remember the following points.
Masculine nouns on the pattern लड़का/लड़के boy/boys
These all end in -आ in the singular and -
ए in the plural. There are also a few masculine nouns, derived from Sanskrit, that end in -आ but are the same in singular and plural forms; such as पिता father.
Masculine nouns on the pattern आदमी/
These mostly end in a consonant or -ई in the singular and are the same in the singular and plural.
Feminine nouns on the pattern लड़की/लड़कियाँ girl/girls
These have singular endings in -ई, -
इ, -इया -,
and plural endings in -इयाँ .
Note: to write the plural change the final
ी of the singular to
ि and add -
याँ -. As in
स्त्री/स्त्रियाँ woman/women (an alternate word for woman)
Feminine nouns on the pattern औरत/औरतें woman/women
These have a variety of singular endings but the plurals all end in -एँ . Note: to spell these words mostly you add
एँ as a
मात्रा as in औरत/
औरतें but with some words, such as
माता mother, you add the एँ as an initial form of the vowel,
The only way to learn the genders of nouns for things is by memorising them and one way to do this is by memorising a word along with an adjective that agrees with the noun.