Topic 81: मुझे कहाँ जाना चाहिए ? Where should I go (compulsion)

Context: Tara is talking to Rita about what she should do in India.

Tara is talking to Rita

बातचीत

तारा - भारत में मुझे कहाँ-कहाँ जाना चाहिए ?

रीता - मेरे ख़्याल से अगर समय हो तो जुलाई में पहाड़ों पर जाना चाहिए।

तारा - हाँ, जंगल में घूमने के लिए अच्छी जगह होगी, लेकिन....

रीता - लेकिन क्या ? तुम क्या कहना चाहती हो ?

तारा - मेरे दोस्त ज़िद करते हैं कि उनसे मिलना है।

रीता - और वे कहाँ होंगे ?

Conversation

Tara - Where should I go in India?

Rita - In my view if there is time in July you should go to the hills.

Tara - Yes that will be a good place for walking in the forests, but...

Rita - But what? What do you want to say?

Tara - My friends are insisting that I should meet them.

Rita - And where will they be?

Notes: levels of compulsion in Hindi

Compare these two sentences; the first is about something that should be done, the second about something that must be done.

In English we think of expressions like ‘should’, ‘ought to’, ‘must’ and ‘have to’ in relation to various levels of compulsion. In Hindi there are also various constructions which relate to the idea of compulsion. They all follow the pattern of मुझको चाय चाहिए I want tea (‘to me something is desired’). However, the verb at the end of the construction changes to reflect, broadly speaking, three levels of compulsion in Hindi.

चाहिए as the verb suggests that the compulsion is something you feel based on your own inner intentions, similar to ‘should’ and ‘ought’.

होना as the verb suggests that the compulsion is something you perceive as being due to outer circumstances, similar to ‘must’.

Note that there is some variation in Western Hindi and Eastern speaking areas with agreement in this construction. In the western areas as शब्दावली, vocabulary is feminine many speakers prefer मुझे यह शब्दावली रटनी है। and make the verb behave like an adjective and make it agree with a noun if present. However, many Eastern area Hindi speakers do not follow this practice and leave the verb in its infinitive form.

पड़ना as the verb suggests that the compulsion is something inevitable, similar to ‘have to’.

Vocabulary

ज़िद nf. stubborness; ज़िद करना vt. to insist

चप्पल nm. slippers

इकट्ठा adj. gathered; इकट्ठा करना vt. to gather

हर adv. every

रोज़ nm. day; adv. daily; (often as रोज़ रोज़)

रियाज़ nf. training, practice

शब्दावली nf. vocabulary

रटना vi. to repeat, to learn by heart

आख़िर nm. end; आख़िर में in the end

इम्तहान देना nm. to 'take' a test, examination; (NB a student gives a test to teacher, so इम्तहान देना and a teacher takes a test from a student, so इम्तहान लेना)