Topic 76: मैं देख चुका I have already seen (modal verb चुकना)

Context: Salim rings up Vivek to talk about his wedding plans.

Salim rings up Vivek


सलीम - विवेक भाई, तुम कैसे हो? शादी के लिए सब तैयारी हो चुकी?

विवेक - अरे सलीम साहब, मैं बहुत मसरूफ़ हूँ। जगह की बुकिंग हो चुकी है।

सलीम - और सब महमानों को निमंत्रण भेज चुके?

विवेक - हाँ, कार्डों की छपवाई हो चुकी है और अभी भेज रहे हैं।

सलीम - शाबाश, विदेश से कितने लोग आ रहे हैं?

विवेक - जहाँ तक मुझे पता है क़रीब चालीस विदेशी लोगों ने कहा है कि वे आ रहे हैं।


Salim - O my friend Vivek, how are you? Have all the preparations for the wedding been made?

Vivek - O Mr Saleem, I am very busy. The booking for the place has already been made.

Salim - And have invitations been sent to all the guests?

Vivek - Yes, the cards are being printed and are being sent now.

Salim - Well done, how many people are coming from abroad/foreign?

Vivek - As far as I know almost fourty foreigners have said that they are coming.

Notes: चुकना as a modal verb

The sense of चुकना as a modal verb is that an action has already been done.

To say that you have already done an action use the stem of the verb for the action plus the verb चुकना as the finite verb in a sentence. It is common for चुकना to be used with a final form of होना unless the action has been done immediately before the statement. For instance:

As completion of actions normally refers to specific events in the past this construction is mostly used with past perfective tenses. Note perfective tenses in this construction do not take ने. For instance:

Restrictions on the use of चुकना

कना is not normally used with negative statements. So although somebody might ask using चुकना if the reply is in the negative it would not use चुकना.

Note चुकाना is a separate independent verb that means to pay off money.


चुकना vi. as modal verb after verb stem ~ चुकना ~, already done ~

चुकाना vt. to pay money owing

कविता nf. poem

मसरूफ़ adj. busy

मेहमान nm. guest

निमंत्रण nm. invitation

छपवाई nf. printing

ख़त्म adj. finish; ख़त्म होना vi. to be finish; ख़त्म करना vt. to finish