Topic 37: हम शहर में रहते हैं We live in the city (agreement)

Context: Salim and Tara talk further about what they do.

बातचीत

सलीम - तारा, तुम कहाँ रहती हो ?

तारा - मैं मेलबर्न शहर में रहती हूँ । और तुम कहाँ रहते हो ?

सलीम - मैं शहर में नहीं रहता । मैं गाँव में रहता हूँ। मार्क क्या पढ़ता है ?

तारा - सलीम, मैं और मार्क दोनों इतिहास पढ़ते हैं। और मार्क विज्ञान भी पढ़ता है।

सलीम - तारा, तुम क्या करती हो ?

तारा - मैं मेलबर्न विश्वविद्यालय में इतिहास पढ़ती हूँ और क्रिकेट खेलती हूँ ।

Conversation

Salim - Tara, where do you live?

Tara - I live in Melbourne city. And where do you live?

Salim - I don't live in the city. I live in a village. What does Mark study?

Tara - Salim, I and Mark both study history. And Mark studies science.

Salim - Tara what do you do?

Tara - I study history in Melbourne University and I play cricket.

Notes: Present imperfective: agreement with multiple subjects

If the verb agrees with more than one person and all the subjects are male, the verb shows masculine agreement.

 If they are all female, the verb shows feminine agreement.

If a mix of male and female, the verb shows masculine agreement.

If the verb agrees with two or more things which are things of different genders some Hindi speakers make the agreement masculine plural. However, the more traditional approach is that if the things are of mixed gender the verb agrees with the nearest physical thing.

To make present imperfective sentences negative the word नहीं is added before the verb. The हूँ, है, हो, हैं is also often dropped, and if it is retained and shows that you are emphasising the action is not done.
In feminine plural negative sentences, if you drop the हूँ, है,हो, हैं you should nasalize the imperfective participle.