Topic 34: इस उस इन उन Oblique case demonstrative pronouns

Context: Jasprit notices something about the servings and points it out to Baljit.

बातचीत

जसप्रीत - अरे इस कटोरे को देखो बलजीत, इस में क्या है?

बलजीत - मछली है, उसको टिम की थाली में रखो।

जसप्रीत - अच्छा, ठीक है, किसको मछली चाहिए, सिर्फ़ टिम को?

बलजीत - हाँ, सिर्फ़ उसको मछली चाहिए।

जसप्रीत - और किनको खीर चाहिए?

बलजीत - सब लोगों को खीर चाहिए, सब को खीर दो।

Conversation

Jaspreet - Hey, look at this bowl Baljeet, what is in it?

Baljeet - It is fish, put it on Tim's thali.

Jaspreet - Alright, okay, who wants fish, just Tim?

Baljeet - Yes, only he wants fish.

Jaspreet - And who wants kheer?

Baljeet - Everybody wants kheer, give kheer to everybody.

Notes: Pronouns before postpositions

Demonstrative pronouns when they are governed by a postposition become:

यह

becomes

इस

ये

becomes

इन

वह

becomes

उस

वे

becomes

उन

Also note that a postposition governs both a noun it follows and any other words that describe that pronoun, such as ‘this small room’, in this sentence.

यह बड़ा कमरा है ।

This is a big room

इस छोटे कमरे में क्या है ?

What is in this small room?

To work out if a pronoun is governed by a postposition look at the sentence structure. In a sentence like I am in this train. The ‘I am’ is one clause, and the ‘in this train’ is a subsidiary clause. Due to this the ‘in’ does not influence the ‘I’ as it is in a different clause of the sentence.  Have a look at this example:

मैं

इस ट्रेन में

हूँ

I

this train in

am.

Subject

additional information

object.

Note: When to translate को as ‘to’ and when it has no translation

Translating को: ‘to’ with a direct object, no translation with indirect object
Note that in some Hindi sentences को  translates as ‘to’ in English as in:

However, in some Hindi sentences को has no English equivalent word in a sentence. For instance:

If you like you could say, को  translates as ‘to’ when it marks a direct object, and is not translated when it marks an indirect object.