Topic 24: खा - खाओ -  खाइए Eat!


Context: Salim, Mark and Tara go into the restaurant and Baljit, the owner meets them.

बातचीत

बलजीत - आइए, भारतीय खाना खाइए।

सलीम - ठीक है।

बलजीत - बैठिए।

मार्क - पानी दो ।

तारा - एक बोतल मिनरल वाटर दो।

बलजीत - जसप्रीत, पानी लाना ।

Conversation

Baljit - Come, eat Indian food.

Salim - Okay.

Baljit - Sit down.

Mark - Give (me/us) water.

Tara - Give (me/us) a bottle of mineral water.

Bajit - Jaspreet, bring water.

Notes: Commands and requests (Imperatives)

In English when we want to give an order or request to people to do something we add shades of politeness by using different tones of voice and by adding words to commands which ‘soften’ them and make them more polite, ‘Go!’, ‘Please go!’, ‘Would you be so kind as to go’. In Hindi you have to consider both politeness and levels of respect. Politeness, can be shown to people at any level of respect, and, like English, can be indicated by tone of voice and by adding extra words which soften a command.
In Hindi you indicate the level of respect when telling somebody to do something the ending of the verb has to change. When you look up a verb in a dictionary it always comes in a form called the infinitive which ends in the sound -ना -, for instance the verb जाना means ‘to go’. To make the three levels of address in almost all verbs you follow a regular pattern for how to change the verb: remove the -ना -, from the verb and add according to level, for तूlevel, nothing, for तुम  level, the sound -, and for the आप  level, the sound -इए  (sometimes also alternatively spelled as -इये ). For instance to say ‘go’:

To negate a command with तुम or आप level, add मत  before the command, as in मत जाओ, do not go. Also with आप level add , as in न जाइए, don’t go.