Topic 14: और संयुक्त अक्षर (More conjunct characters)

Notes

Third group: the nasal consonants ङ ञ ण न and म

ङ and ञ are represented by बिंदु .
For instance: पंखा  nm. fan

ण is represented either as a half form or by बिंदु .
For instance: अण्डा / अंडा nm. egg

न before त थ द ध is represented by a half form or बिंदु bindu, but before श or स, as बिंदु bindu and before ह as a half form.
For instance: पन्ना nm. page of a book (NB. न् + न = न्न)

म before प फ ब भ is represented by a half form or by बिंदु, but before म न य ल or ह it is represented by a half form.
For instance: चम्मच nm. spoon

Fourth group : rounded characters: ट ठ ड ढद and ह

These can be made into half characters by the use of the विराम symbol ( ् ) or by the use of a modified form where one character goes on top of the other.
चिट्ठी nf.  letter
छुट्टी nf. holiday
लड्डू nm. laddu, a kind of sweet
कद्दू nm. pumpkin
चिन्ह nm. sign, symbol (as in election symbol)
ब्राह्मण nm.  Brahman

Fifth group: The character र combines in a number of ways.

र as the first consonant in a conjunct is written above the line after the consonant it is joined to including any vowel mātrā attached to the conjunct. i.e: धर्म nm. dharma
र as the second consonant in a conjunct consonant  is written as a diagonal stroke low down in the consonant.
For instance: ग्राहक nm. customer
र after ट ठ ड ढ द छ is written as a kind of ‘hat’ mark under the consonant.
For instance: ट्रेन nf. train