Topic 13: संयुक्त अक्षर Conjunct Characters

Notes

A संयुक्त अक्षर (conjunct character) is a combination of two or more consonant characters which are pronounced together without the pronunciation of the inherent अ vowel between them. To represent this the consonants are modified and joined together according to five patterns. They are pronounced and written first from left to right and then top to bottom.

First group: consonants ending in a half-stroke
The consonants क and फ shorten their final ‘hook’ shape.
For instance: क्या what, मुफ़्त adj. free of charge

Second Group: consonants ending in vertical line
These consonants drop their vertical line when they become half consonants.

उदाहरण Examples

As you can see from this last word there can also be combinations of three consonants and in fact the number of conjunct consonants used in Sanskrit is very large indeed, but luckily really complex conjunct consonants are rare in Hindi.