Canberra, 7 July 2017. I have been researching on Ravidas, or Raidas, since I started my PhD, which was in around 1987. In my PhD I worked on the questions of what early sources from before 1700 said about his life and which of his works were current during that period. I then edited a collection of his verses and translated them into English along with a vocabulary of the words in them. I have also collected along the way a number of books about Ravidas.

Some of my publications on Ravidas and materials which I have collected over the years related to Ravidas.


Callewaert, W. M & Friedlander, P., 1992, The Life and Works of Sant Raidas, Manohar: Delhi.

This is the published version of my thesis which I rewrote along with Winand Calleweart who collected the manuscripts on the basis of which the edited text of the songs was compiled. Winand put up the pdf of this on his pages in Academia.edu which I attach here.

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Part 4



  Friedlander, P 1994, 'The Core of the Vani of Raidas', in Entwistle, A. W. & Mallison, F. (eds.), Studies in South Asian Devotional Literature, Manohar, Delhi.



Friedlander, P., 1996, 'The Struggle for Salvation in the Hagiographies of Ravidas', in Leslie, J. (ed.) Myth and Mythmaking, Curzon Press: London. (available if you search in Google Books)



  Friedlander, P., 2012, "Ravidas' in vol. IV. of Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism (BEH), in Knut A. Jacobsen et al (eds)., Brill: Leiden, pp. 371-378.


  Friedlander, P 2016, 'Ravidas and the Ganga: Appropriation or Contestation?', in Jayant Bhalchandra Bapat and Ian Mabbett (ed.), Conceiving the Goddess, Monash University Publishing, Australia, pp. 126-141pp.



Friedlander, P., Ravidās in the Gurū Granth In Brill's Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Volume 1, Knut A. Jacobsen et. al. Brill: Leiden, pp. ???-???.

Forthcoming in July 2017

See: http://www.brill.com/products/book/brills-encyclopedia-sikhism-volume-1


The Ravidas Ramayana by Bhakshidas. First published in VS 1968 (AD 1911-12) this was the first of the Ravidas Ramayana texts to be published. In around 1990 I got the chance to see an original copy of the second edition and was able to photocopy it. It has marvelous illustrations, some of which you can see here, open the images in another tab to see them enlarged. Bakshidas was from the village of Jahadpur in Meerut district.

Bhakshidas and Vaidyaratan Bhagvandas Harnand and Sunand Muni Ravidas giving the bracelet to the Brahmin and the Brahmin giving it to Gangaji
Ravidas conversing with the Pandits Ravidas debating with the Pandits by the Ganga and floating his Shaligrama Mirabai and Kamali meeting Ravidas at the well and becoming his disciples



  This was a print of Bhakshidas's Ramayana I bought in around 1990, published in 1990.
  Another print of Bhakshidas's Ramayana, it is not dated but only cost 6 rupees so it must have been bought I imagine in the early nineteen eighties.
  The latest version of Bhakshidas's Ramayana I have bought, published in 2016 and now with a modern Hindi tika on the verses
  A different Ravidas Ramayana Tradition, by Mahadev Prasad Singh, this one from 1984. This author of this version of the Ravidas Ramayana was from the village of Nachap in Ara district.
  Another print of Mahadev Prasad Singh's Ravidas Ramayana, undated but the 1984 version was the eighth printing, this is the eleventh printing.
  An entirely different Ravidas Ramayana by Kavi Shivchand Varma, no date, but I think I bought it in around 2000. The author of this version of the Ravidas Ramayana was from the village of Angadpur in Barabanki,